1. Immunodeficiency Clinic Overview
    2. HIV Medications at a Glance

HIV Treatment Guidelines

    1. Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral
      agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents. Department of Health and Human Services. July 14, 2016;1-288.
      Available at: https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/contentfiles/lvguidelines/adultandadolescentgl.pdf
    2. Günthard et al. Antiretroviral Drugs for Treatment and Prevention of HIV Infection in Adults: 2016 Recommendations of the International
      Antiviral Society–USA Panel. JAMA 2016;316(2):191-210. Available at: http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=2533073
    3. Thompson MA et a. Guidelines for improving entry into and retention in care and antiretroviral adherence
      for persons with HIV: evidence-based recommendations from an International Association of Physicians in AIDS
      Care Panel. Ann Intern Med 2012;156:817-33.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22393036
    4. Aberg JA et al. Primary Care Guidelines for the Management of Persons Infected With HIV: 2013 Update by the
      HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2014;58:1-10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24343580

HIV Drug Resistance

    1. Wensing AM et al. 2015 Update of the Drug Resistance Mutations in HIV-1. Top Antivir Med. 2015;23(4):132-141. http://www.iasusa.org/sites/default/files/tam/23-4-132.pdf
    2. Vandamme AM et al. and the European HIV Drug Resistance Guidelines Panel. European recommendations for the
      clinical use of HIV drug resistance testing: 2011 update. AIDS Rev. 2011 Apr-Jun;13(2):77-108.
    3. Hirsch MS et al. Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing in Adult HIV-1 Infection – 2008 Recommendations of
      an IAS–USA Panel. Clin Infect Dis 2008;47(2):266-285. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18549313
    4. Wainberg MA et al. Development of antiretroviral drug resistance. N Engl J Med 2011;365:637-46.

Adverse Effects of Antiretroviral Drugs

    1. McNicholl I. Adverse effects of antiretroviral drugs. HIV InSite Knowledge Base.
    2. Islam F et al. Relative risk of cardiovascular disease among people living with HIV: a systematic review and meta-analysis. HIV Med. 2012 Mar 14. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1293.2012.00996.x. [Epub ahead of print] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22413967
    3. Brown TT, Glesby MJ. Management of the metabolic effects of HIV and HIV drugs. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2011 Sep 20;8(1):11-21. http://www.nature.com/nrendo/journal/v8/n1/pdf/nrendo.2011.151.pdf
    4. Anuurad E et al. Human immunodeficiency virus and highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated metabolic disorders and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2009 Oct;7(5):401-10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19355810
    5. Grinspoon S, Carr A. Cardiovascular risk and body-fat abnormalities in HIV-infected adults. N Engl J Med.
      2005 Jan 6;352(1):48-62. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra041811
    6. Schiller DS. Identification, management, and prevention of adverse effects associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2004 Dec 1;61(23):2507-22.
    7. Dube MP et al. Guidelines for the evaluation and management of dyslipidemia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy: recommendations of the HIV Medical Association of the Infectious Disease Society of America and the Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Clin Infect Dis 2003 Sep 1;37(5):613-27. http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/37/5/613.long
    8. Schambelan M et al. Management of Metabolic Complications Associated With Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV-1 Infection – Recommendations of an IAS–USA Panel. JAIDS 2002;31(3):257-275. http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2002/11010/Management_of_Metabolic_Complications_Associated.1.aspx

Opportunistic Infections

    1. Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the prevention and
      treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: recommendations from the
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medical
      Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. May 7, 2013. Available at

Sexually Transmitted Infections

    1. Workowski KA et al. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015. MMWR Recomm Rep 2015 Jun 5;64(RR-03):1-137. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr6403a1.htm

Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP)

    1. Henderson DK. Management of needlestick injuries: a house officer who has a needlestick. JAMA. 2012 Jan 4;307(1):75-84. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22146902
    2. Kuhar DT et al. Updated US Public Health Service Guidelines for the Management of Occupational Exposures to Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Recommendations for Postexposure Prophylaxis. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 2013;34(9):875-92.http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/672271
    3. CDC. Updated guidelines for antiretroviral postexposure prophylaxis after sexual, injection drug use, or other non-occupational exposure to HIV- United States, 2016. April 18, 2016. https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/38856
    4. Cresswell F et al. UK guideline for the use of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis following sexual exposure, 2015. Int J STD AIDS 2016;27:713-38. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27095790

Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP)

    1. Smith et al. Clinical Practice Guideline: Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection in the United States – 2014. http://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/23109
    2. Marrazzo JM et al. HIV Prevention in Clinical Care Settings: 2014 Recommendations of the International Antiviral Society-USA Panel. JAMA. 2014;312(4):390-409. Available at:

Perinatal Transmission

    1. Panel on Treatment of HIV-Infected Pregnant Women and Prevention of Perinatal Transmission. Recommendations for Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant HIV-1-Infected Women for Maternal Health and Interventions to Reduce Perinatal HIV Transmission in the United States. June 7, 2016; pp 1-262. Available at https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/contentfiles/lvguidelines/perinatalgl.pdf

Management of Hepatitis C

    1. AASLD/IDSA/IAS–USA. Recommendations for testing, managing, and treating hepatitis C.

When to Start

    1. INSIGHT START Study Group. Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Early Asymptomatic HIV Infection. N Engl J Med 2015; DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1506816 http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1506816
    2. The TEMPRANO ANRS 12136 Study Group. A trial of early antiretrovirals and isoniazid preventive therapy in Africa. N Engl J Med 2015. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1507198 http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1507198
    3. Abdool Karim, SS. Overcoming Impediments to Global Implementation of Early Antiretroviral Therapy. N Engl J Med 2015. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMe1508527 http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMe1508527

Other Selected Readings

  1. Selected Readings
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