Why do certain drugs have to be taken with food and others taken on an empty stomach?
There are two main reasons these instructions are given:
- To make sure you absorb the proper amount of medication. Drugs are large chemical structures that can be sensitive to the conditions in the stomach. For example, didanosine is destroyed by stomach acid, and therefore should always be taken on an empty stomach.In contrast, saquinavir is best absorbed if it is taken within 2 hours of a meal or a substantial (preferably high fat) snack. Drinking grapefruit juice can also increase the amount of saquinavir that is absorbed into your body.Always try to follow these instructions to make sure you absorb your medications properly.
- To reduce side effects involving the stomach. Sometimes food can protect the stomach from getting irritated. Therefore, some drugs such as ritonavir or zidovudine (AZT) may be taken with food to lower the risk of stomach upset or nausea. However, if you are not experiencing any stomach side effects with these drugs, you can also take them without food if it will make your daily routine easier to follow. Ask your pharmacist if you are not sure about the food requirements for your medications.
Here are some ideas to help you meet the food requirements for your antiretroviral therapy. If your medication should be taken on or with:
- An empty stomach – Take your medication either 1 hour before meals, OR 2 hours after meals.
- Lots of water – Fill a one litre bottle with water each morning and sip from it all day.
- Food – If you have trouble eating full meals, try a snack or some fresh fruit and vegetables. You can also ask a dietician in case you want to try a can of Ensure, Advera or other meal supplements.
- Low-fat snacks – Some suggestions include: plain toast with jam, an apple and a glass of skim milk, cereal and skim milk, low fat pretzels, crackers, or plain popcorn.
- Fatty foods – Try the following: crackers with cheese, egg on toast, bagel and cream cheese, potato chips, baked potato with sour cream, a donut, a chocolate bar, a hamburger, pizza, French fries, peanut butter, ice cream.
- Acidic Beverages – Drink a cola (diet or non-diet) carbonated beverage, or a glass of orange, cranberry or apple juice.
- Grapefruit – Have half a grapefruit, or a glass of grapefruit juice (can be fresh or made from frozen concentrate).
- Why take antiretrovirals?
- Why is it important to take medications regularly?
- Why do certain drugs have to be taken with food and others taken on an empty stomach?
- What if you have side effects?
- Should you lower your drug dose if you are having side effects?
- Is it safe to take antiretrovirals with other medications?
- Is it safe to use alcohol or recreational drugs while you are on antiretroviral therapy?
- Why should medications be stored under specific conditions?
- What are some suggestions and tips to help make taking medications easier?
- Who should you tell if you are having problems?
- How can you get support and encouragement?