1. Immunodeficiency Clinic Overview

HIV Treatment Guidelines

    1. Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in adults and adolescents with HIV. Department of Health and Human Services. December 6, 2023.
      Available at: https://clinicalinfo.hiv.gov/en/guidelines/adult-and-adolescent-arv/whats-new-guidelines
    2. Gandhi RT, Bedimo R, Hoy JF et al. Antiretroviral Drugs for Treatment and Prevention of HIV Infection in Adults: 2022 Recommendations of the International Antiviral Society–USA Panel. JAMA 2022 published online December 1, 2022. doi:10.1001/jama.2022.22246

      Available at: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2799240

    3. McGowan JP, Fine SM, Vail R et al.  Comprehensive primary care for adults with HIV. NYS Dept of Health AIDS Institute. Last updated December 15, 2022.https://www.hivguidelines.org/hiv-care/primary-care-approach/#tab_0
    4. Thompson MA et al.  Primary care guidance for persons with human immunodeficiency virus:  2020 update by the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.  Clin Infect Dis 2020; DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa1391 https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid/ciaa1391/5956736

HIV Drug Resistance

    1. HIVdb Program:  Mutations Analysis.  Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database.
    2. Wensing AM et al.  2022 update of the drug resistance mutations in HIV-1.  Top Antivir Med 2022; 30:559-74. https://iasusa.wpenginepowered.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/10/30-4-559.pdf
    3. Carr A et al.  HIV drug resistance in the era of contemporary antiretroviral therapy:  a clinical perspective.  Antiviral Ther 2023 Oct:1-15.  HIV drug resistance in the era of contemporary antiretroviral therapy: A clinical perspective – PubMed (nih.gov)
    4. Boucher CA et al.  State of the art in HIV drug resistance:  science and technology knowledge gap.  AIDS Rev 2018;20:27-42.  https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29628515/
    5. Spach DH.  Evaluation and management of virologic failure.  National HIV Curriculum (last updated 25 Nov 2023).  https://www.hiv.uw.edu/go/antiretroviral-therapy/evaluation-management-virologic-failure/core-concept/all
    6. Garcia F et al.  Predicting antiretroviral drug resistance from the latest or cumulative genotype.  Antivir Ther 2011;16:373-82.
    7. Wainberg MA et al. Development of antiretroviral drug resistance. N Engl J Med 2011;365:637-46.

Antiretroviral Therapy

    1. Antiretroviral therapy overview (modules 1-5).  National HIV Curriculum. https://www.hiv.uw.edu/go/antiretroviral-therapy
    2. The past, present and future of HIV Treatment. Recorded at the British Pharmacological Society’s 90th Anniversary Celebration event on 1 December 2021 Symposium: Pioneers in Drug Discovery & Pharmacology Symposium – Sir Alasdair Breckenridge Talk. Speaker: Professor David Back, University of Liverpool, UK
    3. Grant P.  Agents used in antiretroviral therapy.  inPractice (free registration required) https://www.inpractice.com/Textbooks/HIV/Antiretroviral_Therapy/ch10_pt1_Overview/Chapter-Pages/Page-1?utm_campaign=HIV&utm_medium=email&_hsmi=144834271&_hsenc=p2ANqtz-_FwAy3PfDavdTnTdTXKyXyayRaNOqxZSl4R1qP3W6wWHUsOl6J3PtcOHXSilk3jDkIWJRoxFCp0pfom-ByHzJLLoJ76k8wL4qoARDFLPoPqymlj08&utm_content=144834271&utm_source=hs_email

Managing Aging/Comorbidities in HIV

    1. Sangarlangkarn A, Appelbaum JS.  Comprehensive geriatric assessment in older persons with HIV.  Open Forum Infect Dis 2020;7:ofaa485. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7672420/
    2. Allavena C, Hant M, Rev D, et al.  Antiretroviral exposure and comorbidities in an aging HIV-infected population:  the challenge of geriatric patients.  PLoS One 2018;13(9): e0203895. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30240419
    3. Harris TG, Rabkin M, El-Sadr WM.  Achieving the fourth 90:  healthy aging for people living with HIV.  AIDS 2018;32:1563-9.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29762172
    4. Abrass CK, Appelbaum SJ, Boyd CM, et al. Updated: the HIV and Aging Consensus Project. Recommended treatment strategies for clinicians managing older patients with HIV. https://aahivm-education.org/hiv-age/contents
    5. Andany N, Kennedy VL, Aden M, Loutfy ML.  Perspectives on menopause and women with HIV.  Int J Womens Health 2016;8:1-22.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26834498
    6. Swanepoel CR, Atta MG, D’Agati VD et al.  Kidney disease in the setting of HIV infection: conclusions from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies Conference.  Kidney Int 2018;93:545-59.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29398134
    7. Biver E, Calmy A, Aubry-Rozier B et al.  Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of bone fragility in people living with HIV:  a position statement from the Swiss Association against Osteoporosis.  Osteoporos Int 2019;30:1125-35.  https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30603840/
    8. Brown TT, Hoy J, Borden M, et al. Recommendations for evaluation and management of bone disease in HIV. Clin Infect Dis 2015;60:1242-51. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25609682
    9. So-Armah K, Benjamin LA, Bloomfield GS, et al.  HIV and cardiovascular disease. Lancet HIV 2020;7:e279-293.  https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32243826/
    10. Drozd DR, Kitahata MM, Althoff KN et al. Increased risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected individuals in North America compared with the general population.  JAIDS 2017;75:568-76.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28520615
    11. Sarkar S, Brown TT.  Diabetes in people with HIV.  Curr Diab Rep 2021;21: doi: 10.1007/s11892-021-01382-8.  https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33730223/
    12. Winston A, Spudich S.  Cognitive disorders in people living with HIV.  Lancet HIV 2020;7:e504-513.  https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32621876/
    13. Chu C, Pollock LC, Selwyn PA. HIV-associated complications: a systems-based approach. Am Fam Physician 2017;96:161-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28762691
    14. Shmakova A, Germini D, Vassetzky Y.  HIV-1, HAART and cancer:  a complex relationship.  Int J Cancer 2020;146:2666-2679.
    15. Reid E, Suneja G, Ambinder RF, et al. Cancer in people living with HIV, version 1.2018, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2018;16:986-1017. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30099375

Opportunistic Infections

    1. Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in in adults and adolescents with HIV: recommendations from the
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medical Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Last updated September 25, 2023. Available at

Sexually Transmitted Infections

    1. Canadian Guidelines on Sexually Transmitted Infections (CGSTI). Last modified: 2020-07-09. https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/infectious-diseases/sexual-health-sexually-transmitted-infections/canadian-guidelines/sexually-transmitted-infections.html
    2. Workowski KA et al. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015. MMWR Recomm Rep 2015 Jun 5;64(RR-03):1-137. https://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/tg-2015-print.pdf

Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP)

    1. Kuhar DT et al. Updated US Public Health Service Guidelines for the Management of Occupational Exposures to HIV and Recommendations for Postexposure Prophylaxis; and Update: interim statement regarding potential fetal harm from exposure to dolutegravir (May 23, 2018). https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/20711
    2. CDC. Updated guidelines for antiretroviral postexposure prophylaxis after sexual, injection drug use, or other non-occupational exposure to HIV- United States, 2016. April 18, 2016. Update: interim statement regarding potential fetal harm from exposure to dolutegravir (May 23, 2018). https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/38856

Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP)

    1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: US Public Health Service: Preexposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV infection in the United States—2021 Update: a clinical practice guideline. Published 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/risk/prep/cdc-hiv-prep-guidelines-2021.pdf
    2. Tan DHS, Hull MW, Yoong D, et al.  Canadian guideline on HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis.  CMAJ 2017:189:E1448-E1458. http://www.cmaj.ca/content/189/47/E1448

Pregnancy and Perinatal Care

    1. Panel on Treatment of Pregnant Women with HIV Infection and and Prevention of Perinatal Transmission. Recommendations for Use of Antiretroviral Drugs During Pregnancy and Interventions to Reduce Perinatal HIV Transmission in the United States. Last updated January 31, 2023.  Available at https://clinicalinfo.hiv.gov/en/guidelines/perinatal/whats-new-guidelines
    2. Eke AC, Mirochnick M, Lockman S.  Antiretroviral therapy and adverse pregnancy outcomes in people living with HIV.  NEJM 2023;388:344-56.  DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra2212877
    3. Loutfy M et al.  A clinical practice guide:  what HIV care providers need to know about HIV pregnancy planning to optimize preconception care for their patients.  JAMMI 2020;5:8-20. https://jammi.utpjournals.press/doi/full/10.3138/jammi.2019-0013

COVID-19 and People with HIV

    1. CDC. Guidance for COVID-19 and people with HIV. https://clinicalinfo.hiv.gov/en/guidelines/covid-19-and-persons-hiv-interim-guidance/interim-guidance-covid-19-and-persons-hiv
    2. NIH.  COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines:  Special considerations in people with HIV. https://www.covid19treatmentguidelines.nih.gov/special-populations/hiv/
    3. British HIV Association.  Coronavirus (COVID-19) and HIV:  BHIVA statements. https://www.bhiva.org/Coronavirus-COVID-19

Management of Hepatitis C

    1. AASLD/IDSA/IAS–USA. HCV Guidance: Recommendations for testing, managing, and treating hepatitis C.
    2. Abutaleb A, Sherman KE.  A changing paradigm:  management and treatment of the HCV/HIV-co-infected patient.  Hepatol Int 2018;12:500-9.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30238230

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