1. Immunodeficiency Clinic Overview

HIV Treatment Guidelines

    1. Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents. Department of Health and Human Services. December 18, 2019.
      Available at: https://clinicalinfo.hiv.gov/en/guidelines/adult-and-adolescent-arv/introduction?view=full
    2. Saag MS, Gandhi RT, Hoy JF et al. Antiretroviral Drugs for Treatment and Prevention of HIV Infection in Adults: 2020 Recommendations of the International Antiviral Society–USA Panel. JAMA 2020 published online October 14. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.17025 Available at: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2771873
    3. Thompson MA et a. Guidelines for improving entry into and retention in care and antiretroviral adherence
      for persons with HIV: evidence-based recommendations from an International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care Panel. Ann Intern Med 2012;156:81733. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22393036 
    4. Thompson MA et al.  Primary care guidance for persons with human immunodeficiency virus:  2020 update by the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.  Clin Infect Dis 2020; DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa1391 https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid/ciaa1391/5956736

HIV Drug Resistance

    1. Wensing AM et al.  2019 update of the drug resistance mutations in HIV-1.  Top Antivir Med 2019;27:111-21.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6892618/
    2. McCluskey SM et al.  Management of virologic failure and HIV drug resistance.  Infect Dis Clin North Am 2019;33:707-42.  https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31255384/
    3. Boucher CA et al.  State of the art in HIV drug resistance:  science and technology knowledge gap.  AIDS Rev 2018;20:27-42.  https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29628515/
    4. Spach DH.  Evaluation and management of virologic failure.  National HIV Curriculum (last updated 30 Aug 2020).  https://www.hiv.uw.edu/go/antiretroviral-therapy/evaluation-management-virologic-failure/core-concept/all
    5. Garcia F et al.  Predicting antiretroviral drug resistance from the latest or cumulative genotype.  Antivir Ther 2011;16:373-82.
    6. Wainberg MA et al. Development of antiretroviral drug resistance. N Engl J Med 2011;365:637-46.

Managing Aging/Comorbidities in HIV

    1. Allavena C, Hant M, Rev D, et al.  Antiretroviral exposure and comorbidities in an aging HIV-infected population:  the challenge of geriatric patients.  PLoS One 2018;13(9): e0203895. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30240419
    2. Harris TG, Rabkin M, El-Sadr WM.  Achieving the fourth 90:  healthy aging for people living with HIV.  AIDS 2018;32:1563-9.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29762172
    3. Abrass CK, Appelbaum SJ, Boyd CM, et al. Updated: the HIV and Aging Consensus Project. Recommended treatment strategies for clinicians managing older patients with HIV. http://hiv-age.org/clinical-recommendations/
    4. Andany N, Kennedy VL, Aden M, Loutfy ML.  Perspectives on menopause and women with HIV.  Int J Womens Health 2016;8:1-22.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26834498
    5. Swanepoel CR, Atta MG, D’Agati VD et al.  Kidney disease in the setting of HIV infection: conclusions from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies Conference.  Kidney Int 2018;93:545-59.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29398134
    6. Achhra AC, Nugent M, Mocroft A, et al. Chronic kidney disease and antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive individuals: recent developments. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2016;13:149-57. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27130284
    7. McGinty T, Mallon P. Protecting bone health in long-term HIV positive patients receiving antiretrovirals. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2016;6:587-99. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27189695
    8. Brown TT, Hoy J, Borden M, et al. Recommendations for evaluation and management of bone disease in HIV. Clin Infect Dis 2015;60:1242-51. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25609682
    9. Alvarez E, Belloso WH, Boyd MA, et al.  Which HIV patients should be screened for osteoporosis:  an international perspective.  Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2016;11:268-76. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26895510
    10. Maggi P, Di Biagio A, Rusconi S, et al. Cardiovascular risk and dyslipidemia among persons living with HIV: a review. BMC Infect Dis 2017;17:551. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28793863
    11. Abutaleb A, Feinstein MJ.  Coronary artery disease in HIV.  American College of Cardiology, Jan 18, 2018. https://www.acc.org/latest-in-cardiology/articles/2018/01/18/08/57/coronary-artery-disease-in-hiv
    12. Drozd DR, Kitahata MM, Althoff KN et al. Increased risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected individuals in North America compared with the general population.  JAIDS 2017;75:568-76.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28520615
    13. Monroe AK, Glesby MJ, Brown TT. Diagnosing and managing diabetes in HIV-infected patients: current concepts. Clin Infect Dis 2015;60:453-62. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25313249
    14. Underwood J, Winston A. Guidelines for evaluation and management of cognitive disorders in HIV-positive individuals. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2016;13:235-40.
    15. Clifford DB, Ances BM.  HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder.  Lancet Infect Dis 2013;13:976-86. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24156898
    16. Chu C, Pollock LC, Selwyn PA. HIV-associated complications: a systems-based approach. Am Fam Physician 2017;96:161-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28762691
    17. Reid E, Suneja G, Ambinder RF, et al. Cancer in people living with HIV, version 1.2018, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2018;16:986-1017. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30099375

Opportunistic Infections

    1. Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the prevention and
      treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: recommendations from the
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medical
      Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Last updated May 26, 2020. Available at

Sexually Transmitted Infections

    1. Canadian Guidelines on Sexually Transmitted Infections (CGSTI). Last modified: 2020-07-09. https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/infectious-diseases/sexual-health-sexually-transmitted-infections/canadian-guidelines/sexually-transmitted-infections.html
    2. Workowski KA et al. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015. MMWR Recomm Rep 2015 Jun 5;64(RR-03):1-137. https://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/tg-2015-print.pdf

Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP)

    1. Kuhar DT et al. Updated US Public Health Service Guidelines for the Management of Occupational Exposures to HIV and Recommendations for Postexposure Prophylaxis; and Update: interim statement regarding potential fetal harm from exposure to dolutegravir (May 23, 2018). https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/20711
    2. CDC. Updated guidelines for antiretroviral postexposure prophylaxis after sexual, injection drug use, or other non-occupational exposure to HIV- United States, 2016. April 18, 2016. Update: interim statement regarding potential fetal harm from exposure to dolutegravir (May 23, 2018). https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/38856

Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP)

    1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: US Public Health Service: Preexposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV infection in the United States—2017 Update: a clinical practice guideline. Published March 2018.  https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/risk/prep/cdc-hiv-prep-guidelines-2017.pdf
    2. Tan DHS, Hull MW, Yoong D, et al.  Canadian guideline on HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis.  CMAJ 2017:189:E1448-E1458. http://www.cmaj.ca/content/189/47/E1448

Perinatal Transmission

    1. Panel on Treatment of Pregnant Women with HIV Infection and and Prevention of Perinatal Transmission. Recommendations for Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant Women with HIV Infection and Interventions to Reduce Perinatal HIV Transmission in the United States. Last updated April 14, 2020. Available at https://clinicalinfo.hiv.gov/en/guidelines/perinatal/whats-new-guidelines
    2. Loutfy M et al.  A clinical practice guide:  what HIV care providers need to know about HIV pregnancy planning to optimize preconception care for their patients.  JAMMI 2020;5:8-20. https://jammi.utpjournals.press/doi/full/10.3138/jammi.2019-0013

Management of Hepatitis C

    1. AASLD/IDSA/IAS–USA. HCV Guidance: Recommendations for testing, managing, and treating hepatitis C.
    2. Abutaleb A, Sherman KE.  A changing paradigm:  management and treatment of the HCV/HIV-co-infected patient.  Hepatol Int 2018;12:500-9.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30238230

When to Start

    1. INSIGHT START Study Group. Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Early Asymptomatic HIV Infection. N Engl J Med 2015; DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1506816 http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1506816
    2. The TEMPRANO ANRS 12136 Study Group. A trial of early antiretrovirals and isoniazid preventive therapy in Africa. N Engl J Med 2015. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1507198 http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1507198
    3. Abdool Karim, SS. Overcoming Impediments to Global Implementation of Early Antiretroviral Therapy. N Engl J Med 2015. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMe1508527 http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMe1508527

Other Selected Readings

  1. Selected Readings

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