1. Immunodeficiency Clinic Overview
    2. HIV Medications at a glance

HIV Treatment Guidelines

    1. Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral
      agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents. Department of Health and Human Services. October 25, 2018.
      Available at: https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/guidelines/html/1/adult-and-adolescent-arv/0
    2. Saag MS, Benson CA, Gandhi RT, et al. Antiretroviral Drugs for Treatment and Prevention of HIV Infection in Adults: 2018 Recommendations of the International
      Antiviral Society–USA Panel. JAMA 2018;320(4):1-18. Available at: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2688574
    3. Thompson MA et a. Guidelines for improving entry into and retention in care and antiretroviral adherence
      for persons with HIV: evidence-based recommendations from an International Association of Physicians in AIDS
      Care Panel. Ann Intern Med 2012;156:817-33.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22393036
    4. Aberg JA et al. Primary Care Guidelines for the Management of Persons Infected With HIV: 2013 Update by the
      HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2014;58:1-10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24343580

HIV Drug Resistance

    1. Gunthard HF, Calvez V, Parades R, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance: 2018 recommendations of the International Antiviral Society-USA Panel. Update of the Drug Resistance Mutations in HIV-1. Clin Infect Dis 2018. https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid/ciy463/5055715
    2. Wainberg MA et al. Development of antiretroviral drug resistance. N Engl J Med 2011;365:637-46.

Managing Aging/Comorbidities in HIV

    1. Allavena C, Hant M, Rev D, et al.  Antiretroviral exposure and comorbidities in an aging HIV-infected population:  the challenge of geriatric patients.  PLoS One 2018;13(9): e0203895. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30240419
    2. Harris TG, Rabkin M, El-Sadr WM.  Achieving the fourth 90:  healthy aging for people living with HIV.  AIDS 2018;32:1563-9.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29762172
    3. Abrass CK, Appelbaum SJ, Boyd CM, et al. Updated: the HIV and Aging Consensus Project. Recommended treatment strategies for clinicians managing older patients with HIV. http://hiv-age.org/clinical-recommendations/
    4. Andany N, Kennedy VL, Aden M, Loutfy ML.  Perspectives on menopause and women with HIV.  Int J Womens Health 2016;8:1-22.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26834498
    5. Swanepoel CR, Atta MG, D’Agati VD et al.  Kidney disease in the setting of HIV infection: conclusions from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies Conference.  Kidney Int 2018;93:545-59.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29398134
    6. Achhra AC, Nugent M, Mocroft A, et al. Chronic kidney disease and antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive individuals: recent developments. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2016;13:149-57. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27130284
    7. McGinty T, Mallon P. Protecting bone health in long-term HIV positive patients receiving antiretrovirals. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2016;6:587-99. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27189695
    8. Brown TT, Hoy J, Borden M, et al. Recommendations for evaluation and management of bone disease in HIV. Clin Infect Dis 2015;60:1242-51. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25609682
    9. Alvarez E, Belloso WH, Boyd MA, et al.  Which HIV patients should be screened for osteoporosis:  an international perspective.  Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2016;11:268-76. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26895510
    10. Maggi P, Di Biagio A, Rusconi S, et al. Cardiovascular risk and dyslipidemia among persons living with HIV: a review. BMC Infect Dis 2017;17:551. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28793863
    11. Abutaleb A, Feinstein MJ.  Coronary artery disease in HIV.  American College of Cardiology, Jan 18, 2018. https://www.acc.org/latest-in-cardiology/articles/2018/01/18/08/57/coronary-artery-disease-in-hiv
    12. Drozd DR, Kitahata MM, Althoff KN et al. Increased risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected individuals in North America compared with the general population.  JAIDS 2017;75:568-76.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28520615
    13. Monroe AK, Glesby MJ, Brown TT. Diagnosing and managing diabetes in HIV-infected patients: current concepts. Clin Infect Dis 2015;60:453-62. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25313249
    14. Underwood J, Winston A. Guidelines for evaluation and management of cognitive disorders in HIV-positive individuals. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2016;13:235-40.
    15. Clifford DB, Ances BM.  HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder.  Lancet Infect Dis 2013;13:976-86. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24156898
    16. Chu C, Pollock LC, Selwyn PA. HIV-associated complications: a systems-based approach. Am Fam Physician 2017;96:161-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28762691
    17. Reid E, Suneja G, Ambinder RF, et al. Cancer in people living with HIV, version 1.2018, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2018;16:986-1017. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30099375

Opportunistic Infections

    1. Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the prevention and
      treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: recommendations from the
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medical
      Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. November 29, 2018. Available at

Sexually Transmitted Infections

    1. Canadian Guidelines on Sexually Transmitted Infections (CGSTI). Last modified: 2018-06-29. https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/infectious-diseases/sexual-health-sexually-transmitted-infections/canadian-guidelines/sexually-transmitted-infections.html#toc
    2. Workowski KA et al. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015. MMWR Recomm Rep 2015 Jun 5;64(RR-03):1-137. https://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/tg-2015-print.pdf

Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP)

    1. Kuhar DT et al. Updated US Public Health Service Guidelines for the Management of Occupational Exposures to HIV and Recommendations for Postexposure Prophylaxis; and Update: interim statement regarding potential fetal harm from exposure to dolutegravir (May 23, 2018). https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/20711
    2. CDC. Updated guidelines for antiretroviral postexposure prophylaxis after sexual, injection drug use, or other non-occupational exposure to HIV- United States, 2016. April 18, 2016. Update: interim statement regarding potential fetal harm from exposure to dolutegravir (May 23, 2018). https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/38856

Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP)

    1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: US Public Health Service: Preexposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV infection in the United States—2017 Update: a clinical practice guideline. Published March 2018.  https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/risk/prep/cdc-hiv-prep-guidelines-2017.pdf
    2. Tan DHS, Hull MW, Yoong D, et al.  Canadian guideline on HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis.  CMAJ 2017:189:E1448-E1458. http://www.cmaj.ca/content/189/47/E1448

Perinatal Transmission

    1. Panel on Treatment of Pregnant Women with HIV Infection and and Prevention of Perinatal Transmission. Recommendations for Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant Women with HIV Infection and Interventions to Reduce Perinatal HIV Transmission in the United States. Last updated December 7, 2018. Available at https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/guidelines/html/3/perinatal/0

Management of Hepatitis C

    1. AASLD/IDSA/IAS–USA. HCV Guidance: Recommendations for testing, managing, and treating hepatitis C.
    2. Abutaleb A, Sherman KE.  A changing paradigm:  management and treatment of the HCV/HIV-co-infected patient.  Hepatol Int 2018;12:500-9.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30238230

When to Start

    1. INSIGHT START Study Group. Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Early Asymptomatic HIV Infection. N Engl J Med 2015; DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1506816 http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1506816
    2. The TEMPRANO ANRS 12136 Study Group. A trial of early antiretrovirals and isoniazid preventive therapy in Africa. N Engl J Med 2015. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1507198 http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1507198
    3. Abdool Karim, SS. Overcoming Impediments to Global Implementation of Early Antiretroviral Therapy. N Engl J Med 2015. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMe1508527 http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMe1508527

Other Selected Readings

  1. Selected Readings

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